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Dasyurids are an almost unknown creature to many. Carnivorous marsupials are a large and diverse group of animals spread across our continent and New Guinea. There is a remarkable variation in all aspects of the species whether dunnart, planigale or quoll. Partly due to their adaptation to a range of environments from arid dessert to damp rain forest.
Australian carnivorous marsupials
Order : Dasyuromorphia
Family : Dasyuridae. Genus Species : 55 species in 12 genera
Family : Thylacindae. Genus Species : one species in one genus. (Thylacinus cynocephalus
Order : Notoryctemorphia. Family : Notoryctidae. Genus Species : two species in one
genus. (Notoryctes caurinus, Notoryctes typhlops -
Dasyuridae is largest family of carnivorous marsupials. Emphasis will be given to the Fat tailed Dunnarts and Kowaris, as these are currently the only two species that can be held privately on the Victorian Wildlife schedules. Dasyuridae is a family with diverse species ranging in size from 3 grams to 9 kilograms. There are 68 species in total. 53 occur in Australia and 13 in New Guinea. Two species occur in both regions. 8 are endangered and 6 are listed as vulnerable to extinct. The smallest are planigales, ninqauis and dunnarts. Medium sized are the antechinus, mulgara, kowari and phascogales. And the larger and more commonly known species are the quolls and devils.
“Dasyurids are characterised by a biting and cutting dentition with four pairs of
pointed upper incisors and three lower pairs; well developed upper and lower canines;
two or three pairs of upper blade and lower blade-
Smaller dasyurids feed on insects, arthropods and small vertebrates. The larger species feed on mammals and carrion. The more arboreal species like the quoll will also feed on birds. Quolls and Tasmanian Devils have been know to take “prey several times their own body size”. Not a lot is known about the social behaviour of carnivorous marsupials. In captivity they can display random aggression towards other animals. Nesting together outside the breeding season. Many dasyurid species are solitary in the wild and only come together during a mating period. Records of communal nesting (in the wild) of many species are during times when food is plentiful, changing to solitary behaviour when food is scarce. In the wild Kowari’s are reported to show threat displays towards each other rarely making contact. In captivity females will be aggressive to the male during the oestrus period. Observation of relationships of species in captivity is essential as they change quickly.
Dasyurids use a number of reproductive strategies. Antechinus, phascogales and Little
red kultarr females are monoestrous with a restricted mating period. This is due
to males being reproductively senile and dieing after each breeding season. It is
thought the die off is due to “stress associated with social demands of the mating
season, a time when males stop feeding, live on their reserves and seek all opportunities
to mate.” In some male species during this time “stress hormones reduce the effectiveness
of the immune system, allowing them to succumb to parasites of the blood and intestine
and to bacteria infections of the liver”. (Strahan 2002). Females usually survive
to breed a second season, however reproduction is low. Dunnarts and Kowaris are polyoestrous,
males have perennial and extend mating periods. There are suggested sex ratios for
keeping dasyurid species in captivity. For Fat tailed Dunnarts a 1:1 ratio is suggested,
removing the male after pouch young are discovered due to aggression from the female.
Groups of animals have been reported to share a nest, however males where observed
fighting with other males. Kowaris should be allowed to nest solitary and introduced
as a 1:1 ratio, during the breeding season. For captive breeding, it is suggested
that males be introduced to a females already established environment. Breeding success
has been achieved when introducing the males to the female when she is in oestrus.
Oestrus can be determined by presence of cornified epithelial cell, found in urine
collected and viewed microscopically. lternatively behavioural oestrus can been seen
in Fat tailed Dunnarts and Kowaris this technique can be utilised instead of urine
collection and observed for 1-
Reproduction and development of Kowari & Fat Tailed Dunnart (Jackson 2003). Dasyuroides
Sminthopsis crassicaudata -
Dasyurids are an extremely diverse species, living an a range of environments all with equally diverse requirements in captivity. Due to their short life span they can be a challenging species to keep and maintain via captive populations.
Australia is home to 19 species of Dunnart. Three are listed as endangered and one as vulnerable. Two species occur in Australia and New Guinea. The Fat tailed Dunnart is classified as common. It is immediately recognisable with its large ears, eyes and fat tail. As a species it has adapted to a variety of vegetation habitats ranging from moist regions, the arid inland and lake Eyre basin. This species occurs in all mainland states of Australia. They are a nocturnal species of dasyurid. The Fat tailed Dunnart constructs nests in logs from grasses and or dried plant material. Fat tailed Dunnarts can go through a period of torpor, this is when the fat stores in the tail are utilised.
There are two subspecies of Fat tailed Dunnart, Sminthopsis crassicaudata crassicaudata
which occur in south western, WA. South eastern parts of SA. Victoria. South Eastern,
QLD and south and eastern, NSW. Sminthopsis crassicaudata centralis occurs in a large
geographical region of inland Australian in all mainland states with the exception
of Victoria. Fat tailed Dunnarts are a relatively easy species to keep in captivity.
Currently there are no Kowari’s held on private licenses in Victoria.
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